Linux load average

This post documents the high level concepts I need to remember about *nix Load Average. Load average can been seen in the output of uptime and top: From uptime: $ uptime 14:40 up 21 days, 21:48, 5 users, load averages: 2.63 2.75 3.45 From top: root@blog-server-2:~# top -n 1 | head -2 top - 15:28:37 up 10 days, 12:41, 1 user, load average: 0.04, 0.03, 0.00 Tasks: 95 total, 1 running, 94 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie root@blog-server-2:~# There are 3 decimal numbers shown....


Translating characters with tr

I recently was having to work with Ansible for several days to deploy changes globally across prod. I was storing my playbook limit in a file like so: [18:45] james_simas@widget ~/Downloads $ cat limit.txt At one point, I needed to use supply the list of hostnames in BASH, but rather than having them be newline separated, I needed them to be separated by commas like this:,, I didn’t want to modify my original files (I still needed them) and this seemed like a problem somebody else has problably solved....



Send 10,000 requests, using 10 sockets at a time: ab -n 10000 -c 10 Send requests with a BIG-IP persistence cookie: ab -n 10000 -C BIGipServerMyPool=1677787402.36895.0000


Miscellaneous: Run script with verbose output: bash -v Check for syntax errors: bash -n Show xtrace info: bash -x Lines which start with + are executed in the shell Lines which start with ++ are executed in a sub-shell Loop over alphabet with upper and lower case: for l in {{A..Z},{a..z}}; do echo $l ; done Print text in beautiful columns by piping to: column -t Echo a string to stderr: >&2 echo Hello, world....


Display response code and total time: curl -s -w "%{http_code} - %{time_total}\n" -o /dev/null curl multiple IPs with one command: curl[0-9]:80/ Overriding DNS: curl --resolve ""


Delimited: The delimiter in the below examples is :. Show field 1: cut -f 1 -d : /etc/password Show field 2 and sort results numerically: cut -f 2 -d : /etc/password | sort -n Show all fields after field 1: cut -d: -f 2: Show fields 1 through 2: cut -d : -f1-2 Miscellaneous: Cut 10 from start of line: cut -c -10


Display short response: dig +short Display only answer section: dig +noall +answer Specify source address for query: dig -b <source address[:#port]> Specify DNS server to query: dig @DNS_SERVER Use ends0: dig @DNS_SERVER +subnet=


Numericaly sort file. Fields are separated by :. Use key in position 2: sort -n -k2 -t : /etc/password Sort by size of directories/files: du -h | sort -n


List archives: tarsnap --list-archives | sort List size of all archives: tarsnap --print-stats Create archive: tarsnap -v -c -f ARCHIVE_NAME /path/to/file /path/to/dir Restore archive: tarsnap -v -x -f ARCHIVE_NAME Delete archive: tarsnap -d -f ARCHIVE_NAME Useful doc: